Other building facilities were ramped, but the ramps were not accessible. We employed a single-case exploratory study design to deepen our understanding of the preparedness of Ghanaian student teachers to implement inclusive education in one of the Colleges of Education in Ghana. This serves as a baseline. These outcomes were: Year one: awareness of self and learners as unique individuals, Year two: teachers values and attitudes impacting on pupils learning, how diversity impacts on learning, Year three: being a team member, co-teaching, and co-planning, planning for individualized instruction, Year four: teaching all learners; learners, school, and community. J. Available at: https://www.ntu.eu/news-archive/the-importance-of-the-sustainable-development-goals/ (Accessed May 3, 2022). However, in our nations current climate, saying the word teacher is like Forrest Gump opening a box of chocolates: you never know what youre going to get, as teachers too often are seen as a convenient scapegoat for the perceived problems that are plaguing public education. Using the curriculum to promote inclusive education? Welcome to the Ministry of Education Changing Ghana Through Education. Quality education for all? Misconception:Force is always in the direction of an object's motion.21 Transfer of Energy Concept: Objects come to the temperature of their surroundings. A., and Asimeng-Boahene, L. (2011). The SDG 4 aims to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all (United Nations [UN], 2015). And since the student teachers are required to Recognize how the teacher is a key influence on a learners self-esteem and, as a consequence, their learning potential, there is the need for student teachers to be grounded in disability awareness to understand persons with disabilities, their issues and needs and how best they could be helped. Further reading: 10 Tips and Truths of Living with a Teacher, 2. AN managed the project, including research planning, methodology, the design of the research instruments, fieldwork, data analysis, writing of results and assembled, wrote, and edited the first draft of the manuscript. Attitudes towards inclusive education in africa scale (ATIAS): an instrument to measure teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education for students with disabilities. To these little ones, reading must be fun. Edu. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Challenges and opportunities for inclusive education in Ghana. In Ghana the role and importance of technical and vocational education and training ( TVET) are not clearly understood by the citizenry. 68, 95115. The metaverse is a tool that blends experiences typically associated with either the virtual or physical worlds. In many districts, teachers elect to have their salary divided over a 52-week period so they still have money coming in over the summer. In this paper, we used two analytical perspectives, the SDGs Goal 4 and the social model of disability, to understand whether or not student teachers are adequately prepared to deliver inclusive education in Ghana. A large number of pupils struggle to meet the proficiency cut-off point for English and Mathematics between grades four and six. The policy sets an agenda of child friendly schools, which implies schools in Ghana ought to look out for children; that is child-seeking and again they should focus attention on children; that is, schools should be child-centered. Geneva: World Health Organization. World Health Organization. Educ. The government has found the SDGs to align with the current national vision of Ghana Beyond Aid, a long-term economic and social transformation strategy for national development (Republic of Ghana, 2019). Persons with disabilities continue to lag in education, which affects their employment and income and overall well-being. Also, the condition was perceived to cause severe disease. Here, Jo discusses common misconceptions that may prevent career changers from entering the teaching profession. If you're in the same boat, here's a handy cheat sheet to help set your lunatic cousin Larry straight when he claims to know more than you do about your own vocation. London: Chartered Society of Physiotherapy London. In two different studies conducted in sub-Saharan countries, 66.3% to 99.7% were reported to have misconceptions about the etiology of TB, 27.6%-90% likewise misunderstood the symptoms of TB, 0.1% . To achieve inclusive education, a curriculum reform is fundamental to achieve the necessary improvements in the quality of new teachers. Leeds: Disability Press. The lower part of the diagram further illustrates the impact of contextual factors such as environmental (e.g., social, physical, transportation, and information barriers) and personal factors (e.g., education, gender, social background, and profession). The HLSC therefore engages with the wider United Nations SDG structure at global and regional levels (Chaturvedi, 2021). Before working at eSchool Media, Meris worked as an assistant editor for The World and I, an online curriculum publication. We established that the curriculum and auxiliary teaching materials do not adequately address leaners with disabilities and their needs. (2007). Once you find one, you do your possible best to know the causes of the disability or how the person is being helped throughout his or her stay in the schoolWe specifically ask them to identify a child with the disability and even how the facilities and resources in the school support the child. High. It could be an ice breaker or other warming up exercises that could exclude learners with disabilities. But unless they live with, or are close friends with, a teacher, it might be challenging to change their minds. The B.Ed. World Health Organization. Coast, Ghana E-mail of the corresponding author: kodwo33@gmail.com Abstract The general objective of the study was to evaluate the perspectives, conceptions and misconceptions of students on Industrial Attachment. Article 8 of the CRPD outlines measures that states parties could adopt to ensure that persons with disabilities are able to access education, including vocational training and lifelong learning. The teacher in the observation checklist can indicate that he/she is an inclusive teacher but prejudices and discrimination against persons with disabilities could cloud their self-consciousness about persons with disabilities. The Curriculum Framework consistent with the National Teachers Standards, NTC (2018), envisages to prepare new teachers to become effective, engaging, and inspirational in order to improve learning outcomes particularly at the basic school level. In other words, Vocational and Technical Education and Training . Knowledge 3, 97114. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, Keywords: Ghana, inclusive education, persons with disabilities, student teacher, teacher preparedness, Citation: Naami A and Mort KS-T (2023) Inclusive education in Ghana: How prepared are the teachers? In Ghana, there is one common educational curriculum run by the Colleges of Education. Higher Education for Sustainable Development Goals. The National Teacher Education Curriculum Framework (NTECF) sets out the four pillars and cross-cutting issues for the initial training of all teachers at the pre-tertiary level (Ministry of Education National, 2017). Educ. ed. The school and its environment must be safe and accessible for all learners. Misconceptions are often deeply held, largely unexplained, and sometimes strongly defended. You can also describe the numerous meetings and committee work you're involved in. In the 24 years I've worked as a teacher, I've never had a single summer "off.". Post-2015 Education MDGs. Ofori, E. A. The observation checklist and reflective journals do not make enough room for student teachers to self-reflect on disability, which could be a barrier to the education of persons with various forms of disabilities. World Health Organization. For example, ICF combines both the social and the medical models of disability. Bentzen, L. (2015). To deny or not to deny disability. The Equality Act 2010 and the Social Model of Disability. The policy further envisions professional development of teachers in pedagogical skills that meets the needs of children with special needs using child-centered approaches. Educ. However, we think it's more accurate . The Inclusive Policy also sets out to facilitate and enable education structures, systems, and methodologies to meet the needs of all children; and it is a good attempt to promote an inclusive society. Oftentimes we incautiously do things that exclude persons with disabilities in group settings. According to the Colleges of Education Act of 2012, Act 847, the process of preparing teachers in Ghana to teach at the basic school level takes place at the College of Education (CoE). Avoiding anthropomorphism helps young people to open the closed box of AI applications. J. Soc. Nancy Barile, Award-Winning Teacher, M.A.Ed. The Curriculum College of Education in Ghana also recognizes effective class management as sine qua non for classroom participation. In spite of the progress that Ghana has made in improving access to school, several children cannot read or write. SDGs Goal 4-Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all (specifically, targets: 4.5, 4.6, 4.8), and the social model of disability guided the review. What are some of the misconceptions and prejudices about teaching and how can they be addressed ? (2017). Ghana: Ghana Assembly Press. The curriculum of the Colleges of Education in Ghana emphasis on the need for student teachers to reflect on their own beliefs and biases to enhance acceptance and conscientious efforts toward accommodating learners with disabilities to increase their inclusion. The main body of the module focuses on a comparison between two contrasting countries in Africa: Sudan and Ghana. Stein, S., de Oliveira Andreotti, V., and Sua, R. (2019). UNESCOs formulation of the Global Education Cooperation Mechanism (GCM) is at the heart of the interconnectedness and intersectional efforts on SDG 4. Educ. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. For example, in math, when you are teaching math, you will let them know that these and that are some of the misconceptions. Soc. S. Grek, C. Maroy, and A. Verger (Milton Park: Routledge), 4358. For years, governments and other national and international stakeholders have focused their attention on making sure that all children can attend school, and they have backed up that commitment with reforms (Barrett et al., 2019). As Neubauer and Calame (2017) argues, the SDGs ought to be recognized as a unique opportunity to strengthen and intensify the dynamics of sustainability in higher education institutions all over the world. (2018). Given that persons with disabilities have been marginalized in all spheres of life, including their families and caregivers (Naami, 2019), conscientious efforts must be made to ensure that persons with disabilities/organizations of persons with disabilities or individuals/organizations that have the capacity to represent them are at the decision-making table to ensure that their needs are adequately addressed (Agyire-Tettey et al., 2019). It further states that all children have the right to access basic education and that the education system should be dynamic to adapt to the needs of children. For most parts of the country, life is better than the outside world is made to believe. Inclusive education places emphasis on all aspects of education, including the pedagogy, school culture and environments that promote inclusion. My students work extremely hard to overcome obstacles and achieve. The achievement of one goal leads to achieving another goal (Bentzen, 2015; United Nations Communications Groups [UNCG], 2017; United Nations Development Programme [UNDP], 2021). It seems everyone has an opinion about teachers and their profession these days and most of them arent teachers. The school environment, the classroom, lessons, class management and assessment are all limited regarding inclusivity of learners with disabilities. Presently, there are 48 Colleges of Education (CoE) in Ghana, up from 38 in 2014 (Buabeng et al., 2019) and in the 2018/2019 academic year, all Colleges of Education in Ghana were upgraded to University Colleges status to offer a four-year Bachelor of Education degree (Kokutse, 2018). These points provided below are responses and comments that were duly and diligently gathered through surveys and seminars in an attempt to provide some possible ways of raising teaching standards to an appreciable level in the country. Akyeampong, K. (2009). London: Hurst Co. Barnes, C., and Mercer, G. (2005). They are supposed to identify school facilities (e.g., football field, toilet, office space, tennis court, buildings etc. Education has long been recognized as a global priority. Shakespeare, T., and Watson, N. (2010). 10 Tips and Truths of Living with a Teacher, A Chance to Build Meaningful Relationships with Students, Engaging Students during the Long Winter Months, 5 REALISTIC Ways for Teachers to Get Healthier This Year. Crit. We wanted to know more about how the student teacher is taught to reflect on disability. Front. During this period, they are required to keep a portfolio for the documentation of their field experience activities. in Behavioral Science, a Masters in Education, and a Certificate of Advanced Graduate Study in Education Leadership. Available at: http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Ghana/Ghana%20Education%20Strategic%20Plan.pdf (Accessed July 28, 2022). The Curriculum Framework is aimed at preparing competent teachers, and against which all Teacher Education Curricula, including the 4-year Bachelor of Education (B.Ed. But the section seems to relate more to learners with learning difficulties. 1, 78377846. Teaching is the profession that makes all others possible, and what it lacks in salary, it makes up for in job satisfaction. All Rights Reserved. Daily Monday-Friday. Disability should clearly be mentioned in the curriculum and the learning outcomes of the equity and inclusivity cross-cutting pillar and their targets as well as auxiliary materials of Colleges of Educations in Ghana. Perhaps it would be a different matter if the conceptions of teaching were like those of NASA engineers: smart, genius! Disabil. Edulearn19 Proc. Harlow: Longman. Access barriers encountered by persons with mobility disabilities in Accra, Ghana. The education of students with disabilities is affected by attitudinal, pedagogical, institutional, informational, and environmental accessibility barriers (World Health Organization, 2011; Nakua et al., 2017; Braun and Naami, 2021). Revista Educacin Superior y Sociedad (ESS) 32, 167201. Each period lasts 45 minutes and each grade is expected to receive an average of 45 periods of instruction a week covering all subjects (nine periods a day for all subjects). 25, 2139. The SDGs target 4.8 outlines the need to build and upgrade educational facilities that are disability sensitive. Disability and Health. The aim of the study is to develop an understanding of the kinds and sources errors and misconceptions that characterise students' learning of school algebra. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher. The focus on myths and misconceptions is borne out of the fact that they are potential threat to preventive efforts [18-20]. Your source for IT solutions and innovations to support school-wide success. Ghana Statistical Service. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) provides a comprehensive framework to describe health and health-related issues including disability. by Nancy Barile, Award-Winning Teacher, M.A.Ed. To be effective, a science teacher should not underestimate the importance and the persistence of these barriers to true understanding. Available at: https://mofep.gov.gh/sites/default/files/news/Ghana-SDGs-Budget-Report-July-2019.pdf. READ MORE Welcome to the Ministry of Education The Government of Ghana initiated some key education reforms to transform teaching and learning and improve educational outcomes under the Education Strategic Plan (ESP 2018-2030) which was approved by cabinet in November 2018. High. The forms and the student handbooks were published by the government of Ghana under the Transformative Teacher Education and Learning (T-TELL), School Partnership Program with support from the British government. 5, 115. Teaching should therefore involve the full participation of pupils. The multiple data collection sources allowed data triangulations, increased rigor, and credibility of the study as well as a deeper and holistic understanding of the phenomenon (Yin, 2009). But the Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE) program was introduced in 1995 as part of efforts to fulfill UNESCOs mission of free universal education for all by 2015 (Akyeampong, 2009). International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health: Children & Youth Version: ICF-CY. Rather, impairment should be considered to enable provision of suitable accommodation for learners with disabilities. J. Int. So, when they go out, they will observe the teacher to see if they are exhibiting these qualities. London: University World News, The Global Window on Higher Education. Ministry of Education. If your head doesn't explode upon hearing this comment, take the time to explain the endless lesson planning and grading teachers do after school, at home, and on the weekends. It was widely speculated that black people had some immunity against COVID-19. It was the first news agency . So, the student teacher could identify a television as a resource for learning, but their reflection report does not create room for them to report on whether the resource is beneficial to learners with disabilities. We use a case study design when the researcher seeks to answer the how and why Questions and could be exploratory, descriptive, or explanatory (Yin, 1994). For educators, it is crucial to not only understand what the metaverse is and its uses within education but to also realize the benefits of immersive learning with the metaverse. 45, 175195. We, therefore, recommend the need for student teachers to be grounded in disability issues in order to understand learners with diverse disabilities, their unique needs and how best they could help them. In in view of the above, there has been a rising awareness and activism for the inclusion of students with disabilities in regular mainstream classrooms, but the reality in many underdeveloped nations including Ghana is still a gloomy picture (Adera and Asimeng-Boahene, 2011). There are so many more misconceptions about teaching that I could easily write a Part II to this article. The first 9years constitute basic education and are free and compulsory. Attitudes and Disabled People. Prod. Adjei, P., Akpalu, A., Laryea, R., Nkromah, K., Sottie, C., Ohene, S., et al. Until recently, only the University of Cape Coast and University of Education, Winneba, offered university-level training but now the University for Development Studies (UDS) and the University of Ghana, as well as other private universities have programs in teacher education. 60, 281301. World Conference on Special Needs Education: Access and Quality. But here's what teachers do make: a difference in the world. SDGs in Ghana; why they matter and how we can help. Plenty of studies conclude that higher teacher pay leads to better teacher quality, which leads to improved student performance. However, they posit that persons with disabilities are disabled more by their environment and other processes than their perceived impairments (Union of the Physically Impaired Against Segregation [UPIAS], 1976). In a world where competition for jobs, pay increases, and academic success continues to increase, certifications offer hope to candidates and educators. "Teacher Tenure Means Teachers Can't Be Fired", In 2016, I was outraged when a politician made an untrue statement about teacher tenure, so I turned to Facebook to express my anger. They contend that the GCM at best, is an ecosystem that consists of all global education actors that participates in the Global Education Meeting and have agreed to work cooperatively in support of SDG 4. The proponents of the Social Model of Disability acknowledge that impairment could pose a limit to the functioning of persons with disabilities. 10, 7086. They also observe some of the qualities of the classroom teacher. The promises and limitations of the SDG framework for inclusive education and students with disabilities in Grading Goal Four. Our analytical tools, social model of disability and the SDGs goal 4 were synergistic, which allowed for comparative analysis. However, it is equally important to find out whether what the teacher does promotes participation or alienates others. 2010 Population and Housing Census: Summary Report of Final Results . doi: 10.1177/107554708100300106. Central Region of Ghana. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. There are few jobs that offer this kind of reward. Johnstone, C. J., Schuelka, M. J., and Swadek, G. (2020). But the curriculum does not adequately address other categories of learners with disabilities who may require other forms of support as stated in the inclusive education policy. Wheelchair accessibility to public buildings in the Kumasi metropolis, Ghana. CBR Inclus. Access to higher education in Ghana: examining experiences through the lens of students with mobility disabilities. In 2015, Ghana developed an inclusive education policy with an overarching goal of fostering equitable access to education for all children. There is nothing like hearing a former student tell you about the positive change you've made in their life. Misconceptions about GMOs in Ghana due to weak education, study reveals. See Appendix A for details of the interview guide. Those who can't do, teach. doi: 10.4102/ajod.v6i0.341. Findings of the study are expected to make useful contributions to information, education and communication strategies for dispelling myths and misconceptions about TB in Ghana. It must be noted that, although the student observation checklist contains some items on disability, the students were not required, in their reflective journals, to reflect on leaners with disabilities, their learning needs, and how they could be addressed to increase participation. Ethn. Herp-Ghana. Also, emphasis was place more on the classroom environment, which is good. (2013). The construction of SDG4: reconciling democratic imperatives and technocratic expertise in the making of global education data? in World Yearbook of Education 2021. eds. KM contributed to the acquisition, analysis and interpretation of the data, wrote the introduction section and assisted with the formulation, and editing of the draft manuscript. This paper is framed on a case study methodology within the context of utilizing the social model of disability to examine the curricula of Colleges of Education in Ghana by investigating whether the student teacher is prepared enough to promote inclusive education. Teachers teach on average 24 periods per week. United Nations Educational, Scientific and cultural organization [UNESCO]. We also reviewed the Four-Year Bachelor of Education degree curriculum (Developed by the University of Ghana), student reflective journal and the daily portfolio sheet. Howard, H. A., and Rhule, A. Chaturvedi, S. (2021). 8:1056630. doi: 10.3389/feduc.2023.1056630. And that is all before a teacher steps into a classroom. "Education 2030: Incheon Declaration and Framework for Action: Towards Inclusive and Equitable Quality Education and Lifelong Learning for All, UNICEF. doi: 10.1016/S0031-9406(10)62916-1. Further reading: A Chance to Build Meaningful Relationships with Students, 5. We cannot overemphasize the importance of education in creating sustainable societies. Ghana is no exception. Sustainable Development Goals and sustainability teaching at universities: Falling behind or getting ahead of the pack? Clean. Every child has a right to access quality education and acquire skills UNICEF/UN362021/ACQUAH Umm.Not.So.Much. Ghana, our work on SDGs in Ghana. Agbenyega, J. S., Deppeler, J., and Harvey, D. (2005). Inclusion in the policy sets out to create an education system that is responsive to learner diversity and to ensure that all learners have the best possible opportunities to learn. This has the potential of influencing the learning experience of such students in the classroom. The National Teacher Education Curriculum Framework, (NTECF): The Essential Elements of Initial Teacher Education. The principle of universal design in the policy offers learners multiple means of representation, expression, engagement, motivation and tapping into learners interest. Social Policy and Disabled People: From Exclusion to Inclusion. Students' ages can range from 12 to 23 years old. The Social Model of Disability: Europe and the Majority World. Of course, the known architectural barriers are the impediments as postulated by the social model of disabilities. One of the key roles of the HLSC is to ensure the systematic alignment of approaches for education-related targets within the wider United Nations SDG structure. Stressful school atmosphere, teachers' lack of knowledge and bad attitude towards work can equally hinder the reading process at this level. ), but not the accessibility of these facilities. We asked our key informant about how they teach students to self-reflect. Conclusion We conclude that although knowledge and awareness about Ebola is high among Ghanaians who participated in the study, there are still misconceptions about the disease. In my view, it is good the government has assured Ghanaians that the CSE will not be. Socioeconomic factors hindering access to healthcare by persons with disabilities in the Ahanta west municipality, Ghana. st johns to gros morne drive,